What Statement About Risks In Social And Behavioral Sciences Research Is Most Accurate?
Social and behavioral sciences research is an important area of study that provides insights into human behavior, thoughts, and attitudes. These studies can advance scientific knowledge and improve the lives of participants.
However, conducting research involves some risks. Therefore, researchers must carefully weigh the risks of a study against its potential benefits and use ethical principles to manage those risks.
Statement 1: Research In The Social And Behavioral Sciences Poses Minimal Risks To Participants
The social and behavioral sciences are disciplines that study the human mind and behavior at multiple levels, including the individual, cultural, societal, and species. This research is essential for understanding how people think and act. It can contribute to creating public policy, improved community and social interventions, and social and cultural change.
Many studies in the social and behavioral sciences pose minimal risks to participants either in their research participation or once appropriate protections are instituted that ensure the probability and magnitude of harm posed by a research intervention is low (e.g., a clinical trial of a new therapy for severe anxiety; an observational study of the effects of a behavioral program on gang member violence).
Despite this, some social and behavioral science research methods may pose greater-than-minimal risks to participants. For example, these risks might arise because of the subject’s vulnerability (e.g., a study testing a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, a study using exposure therapy for a severe phobia), because of the manipulation of subjects’ emotions, or because the information gathered is likely to be subject to legal subpoenas.
Researchers should carefully evaluate and address these risks to minimize them and minimize their potential to compromise the safety of participants. This evaluation should be made in the context of a risk-benefit analysis that weighs the benefits of the research against any potential risks.
For example, a study of gang member violence could lead to social and economic harm to participants because they might lose employment opportunities or be denied health care services. These risks should be addressed through careful recruitment procedures, adequate confidentiality and data security protections, and by providing accurate, up-to-date information on the risks to each participant.
In addition, the ANPRM proposes expanding the list of activities eligible for expedited review and appointing a standing federal committee to periodically evaluate and update the list based on a systematic, empirical assessment of the levels of risk. This process should be informed by social and behavioral science research and reflect the broad spectrum of research that might be eligible for expedited review, as well as by established scientific and professional knowledge indicating that a study is likely to carry a magnitude of risk that cannot be adequately reduced through risk-minimizing procedures.
Statement 2: Research In The Social And Behavioral Sciences Poses Minimal Risks To Researchers
The risk that a study will result in psychological or social harm to its participants is minimal for most social and behavioral sciences research. However, the occurrence of such harm is not always easy to prevent or control.
Researchers must consider the following risks when conducting social and behavioral science research:
Informational Risk (Re-Identification)
Most social and behavioral science research involves the collection of identifying data. This includes personal health and personal-life information and socioeconomic or demographic data. The information collected can include highly sensitive and private information, which could lead to civil or criminal liability, economic, social, or psychological harm, or increase the likelihood of re-identification.
This information can be gathered in many ways, including surveys and chat rooms. Researchers will often gather information for use in the study only after the participant consented to collect their personal information. Nonetheless, some of this information can be used outside of the study for purposes that are not in the subject’s best interest.
Privacy is an increasingly important concern for social and behavioral scientists. This is especially true of collecting identifiers for surveys and Internet-based chat sessions. Moreover, the collection of such identifying information is not always possible. It may only be feasible with the use of special software.
Deception is another risk area that social and behavioral scientists face, Pospisil says. Studies employing deception can pose significant risks to subjects, who may not realize they are participating in research or may be misled about the purposes of their participation.
In addition, studies designed to evoke information likely to be used against subjects in legal actions, such as admissions of illegal activity, should be reviewed by the full IRB. Similarly, studies that rely on subpoenas should be submitted for full committee review.
Xavier University has longstanding commitments to the field of social and behavioral sciences. We offer degrees in various disciplines that focus on understanding humans at the individual, cultural, societal, and species levels.
Our students come from various backgrounds, and social science theories with a strong social justice orientation often inform their research. These perspectives are incorporated into their coursework and applied through research experiences that expose them to various real-world settings. Despite our varied disciplinary approaches, we share several core values, such as an emphasis on student success and community engagement.
Statement 3: Research In The Social And Behavioral Sciences Poses Minimal Risks To Participants
There are several reasons why participants may be at risk in social and behavioral sciences research. For example, they may be exposed to physical, psychological, or social harm and/or lose their privacy during the study.
In some cases, these risks can become so serious that they require the intervention of a legal entity, such as a doctor or lawyer. For instance, a researcher may need a court order to access a patient’s medical records. In other situations, a researcher might need to get the permission of a subject’s family.
Generally, these risks are very minimal and can be avoided. The most common way to do this is to ensure that the consent form and other documents describing the research clearly explain how the risks will be managed and minimized.
However, some researchers and IRB members mistakenly believe that the federal regulations for protecting human subjects do not apply to social-behavioral research. According to George Pospisil, public health analyst for the division of education and development at the Office for Human Research Protections in Rockville, Maryland, this is incorrect.
The risks that research subjects face in the social and behavioral sciences are minimal compared to those in other research types. However, they include physical, economic, emotional, and social risks.
These risks can be minimized by following research protocols that have been carefully designed to reduce the chances of harm. These protocols are outlined in the IRB application and consent documents.
Those interested in studying this field can enroll in college programs that offer majors in psychology, sociology, and various other related fields. These majors also allow for engaging with the community and learning about real-world problems and solutions.
The social and behavioral sciences are important in understanding population health, addressing real-world social inequalities, and improving individual and community lives. These disciplines are also excellent career entry points, offering opportunities for intellectual growth and professional advancement.
Despite distinct disciplinary approaches, the social and behavioral sciences share common core values and approaches to learning. These values include a commitment to social justice, student success, community engagement, and hands-on learning. This enables students to develop skills in the field and prepare for successful careers.
Statement 4: Research In The Social And Behavioral Sciences Poses Minimal Risks To Participants’ Health
Many people not trained in social and behavioral science research believe that the risks involved in their study should be minimal, but that is not always the case. Studies involving drugs or alcohol, for instance, can pose serious risks to participants’ health. They can also have negative consequences for their personal relationships and career prospects.
This is why it is important for researchers to carefully consider the research risks they are posing to participants’ health and well-being. For example, they should ask for the minimum amount of information needed for the study, protect the information they gather, and avoid collecting sensitive information that may damage subjects.
The social and behavioral sciences have various applications in public policy, health care, education, technology, and society. Their contributions to advancing knowledge are significant and often address real-world social inequities.
Despite the many important and often useful contributions to our knowledge base that social and behavioral scientists make, there is a tendency for these studies to be underreported or under-appreciated. For example, the social and behavioral sciences have played a critical role in understanding and addressing discrimination, prejudice, and social justice issues.
However, many social and behavioral studies rely on the participation of persons with disabilities, economic disadvantages, or other vulnerabilities associated with high-risk levels. Suppose these conditions are not properly considered in the IRB evaluation of the social and behavioral research. In that case, a greater-than-minimal-risk classification could be given to the study.
As a result, participants identified as vulnerable to research risks may not receive the protections they deserve. The same is true of studies involving the testing of sexually transmitted diseases or drugs that can pose serious risks to participants’ health.
The research community, federal agencies, and IRBs have played a leadership role in reconciling researcher access to private information with confidentiality protection and risk reduction (see Levine and Sieber, 2007). They should continue this work to ensure that participants’ health is always protected.
What Statement About Risks In Social And Behavioral Sciences Research Is Most Accurate? Information You Never Know
Risks in social and behavioral sciences research are complex and multifaceted, making it difficult to provide the most accurate statement. However, there are several important considerations when understanding the risks associated with this type of research.
One of the most important considerations is the potential for harm to participants. This can take many forms, including physical harm, psychological harm, damage to reputation, and loss of privacy. For example, participants in studies on sensitive topics like substance abuse or mental health may be at risk of experiencing emotional distress if they are asked to disclose personal information. Therefore, researchers must mitigate these risks, such as obtaining informed consent from participants, ensuring confidentiality and anonymity, and providing appropriate resources for participants who experience harm.
Another consideration is the potential for harm to society at large. Social and behavioral sciences research can have wide-ranging impacts on society, and researchers need to consider the potential consequences of their work. For example, studies on political attitudes or social inequality may affect public policy or social justice. Therefore, it is important to consider how this research may be used by policymakers or advocacy groups.
Finally, it is important to consider the potential for ethical issues in social and behavioral sciences research. Researchers must be aware of ethical guidelines and standards, such as those outlined by the American Psychological Association or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. These guidelines require researchers to uphold certain ethical principles, such as minimizing harm, ensuring informed consent, protecting confidentiality, and providing debriefing and support to participants.
In summary, the risks associated with social and behavioral sciences research are complex and multifaceted. Researchers must take steps to minimize harm to participants, consider the potential impacts of their research on society, and adhere to ethical guidelines and standards. By doing so, they can ensure that their research is conducted responsibly and ethically.
Which of the following is a limitation of statistics MCQS?
Because qualities like beauty, honesty, and goodness cannot be assessed, statistics only works with quantitative data. The statistical laws are not exact, and they may be misused to provide inaccurate information. Political parties may manufacture deceptive statistics to garner favour with the people.
What are the primary risks to participants in social behavioral and education research?
Anxiety and discomfort, exploitation, misrepresentation, and participant identification in published papers, by themselves or others, are four potential risks to study participants that are covered in this article.
What are the three categories of risk of harm in social and behavioral sciences?
Social, psychological, economic, and legal risks of harm are frequently connected with social and behavioural research.
What is the primary purpose of a certificate?
The safety of the public is one of certification’s main goals, and it does this by measuring current abilities and knowledge through a standardised, thorough test.
What are the different types of risk and their impact on the society?
Systematic risk is the result of the market’s overall effect. Unsystematic Risk: Uncertainty that is particular to a firm or an asset. Political/Regulatory Risk: The results of political choices and regulatory modifications. Financial Risk: A Company’s Capital Structure (degree of financial leverage or debt burden)
What are typical social factors that increase the risk of behavioral problems?
Individuals who are socially isolated, underprivileged, or have low levels of education are more likely to engage in a variety of risky behaviours and less likely to engage in actions that promote good health (Adler et al., 1994; Matthews et al., 1989).
Which type of possible harms may be considered research risks?
Risks can be classified as physical, psychological, emotional, or social. Physical hazards are those of bodily injury from contact with another person or from administering any substance; these risks are uncommon in social science, behavioural, and humanities research.